Ancient Greeks and Native Americans | The Panpsychism Analogy

All matter and energy is sentient

[The philosophical view known as panpsychism has ancient roots, with its earliest adherents being pre-Socratic thinkers. Simply stated, it is the notion that all matter and energy is sentient. The idea can also be found in the works of Aristotle (“soul is mingled with everything in the whole universe”) and Plato (“this world is a living body endowed with a soul”). The theory saw a revival in the Renaissance: Philosophers Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz advocated variations of it. “All things are animate in various degrees,” Spinoza wrote in his Ethics.

Now, some might argue that this sounds like hippie nonsense. A word of caution, then, before we go any further: Panpsychist claims such as these should not be interpreted over-literally.]

Let Panpsychism Expand your Mind | JSTOR Daily

Panpsychism | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy



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