The sculptures on the facade of the Parthenon, also known as the Elgin Marbles, consist of a large collection of marble sculpture, which was transported in Britain in 1806 by Thomas Bruce, ‘Z Count of Elgin, ambassador in the Ottoman Empire from 1799 till 1803. Taking advantage of the Ottoman reign of the Greek territory, Lord Elgin managed to obtain permission (the firman) by the Ottoman Sultan to remove the marbles in order to enumerate and register them in schemes, but later he moved on to their abstraction and their exportation out of the country.
The Parthenon is the greatest monument of the Athenian State and the apex of the Doric order. Its construction began in 448/7 B.C., whereas the opening was held in 438 B.C. at the Panathenean Games and the sculpture decorations were finished in 433/2 B.C. According to sources of antiquity, the architects who worked for the construction of the Parthenon were Iktinos, Callicrates and possibly Pheidias, who was also responsible for the sculpture decoration. It is one of the Greek temples that is entirely built of marble as well as the only Doric temple with anastatic metopes. Many parts of the sculpture decoration, the architrave and the coffers of the ceiling were drawn with red, blue and gold colour. Pentelicon marble was used, except from the stylobate, which was built of limestone.
From a total of 97 surviving stones of the frontispiece of the Parthenon, 56 are in London and 40 in Athens. From a total of 64 surviving metopes, 48 are in Athens and 15 in London. From a total of 28 surviving figures of the frontispieces, 19 are in London and 9 in Athens.
Seeing the Parthenon through ancient eyes | PBS
The United Kingdom’s Parliament has voted overwhelmingly in favor of a non-binding motion recognizing Palestine as a state alongside Israel.
The House voted by 274 MPs to 12 to adopt the motion, which called on the government to “recognize the state of Palestine alongside the state of Israel,” with an amendment adding the words “as a contribution to securing a negotiated two-state solution.”
The decision will not change government policy but could have international implications. Government ministers, including Prime Minister David Cameron, abstained in the vote.
Europe, as both a place and a concept, has changed dramatically in its centuries of history. Once one of the world’s most war-torn places, it is now known for its remarkable peace. While a place of relatively great prosperity, it is also experiencing deep economic turmoil. Europe’s transformations are still ongoing, evident both at the continental level and as narrowly as along certain transportation lines.
In The Origins of Totalitarianism Hannah Arendt argues that totalitarian rule is truly possible only in countries that are large enough to be able to afford depopulation. The Soviet Union proved itself to be just such a country on at least three occasions in the twentieth century—teaching its citizens in the process that their lives are worthless. Is it possible that this knowledge has been passed from generation to generation enough times that most Russians are now born with it and this is why they are born with a Bangladesh-level life expectancy? Is it also possible that other post-Soviet states, by breaking off from Moscow, have reclaimed some of their ability to hope, and this is why even Russia’s closest cultural and geographic cousins, such as Belarus and Ukraine, aren’t dying off as fast?
He’s been a millionaire; he’s gone broke. He’s owned property around the world; he’s been homeless. He was a junior national 800 meters champion; he’s met with Vladimir Putin about trading rough diamonds. Now, before hitting his 30th birthday, he’s turned his and his friend Eva’s “Heaven SX” concept into one of London’s most popular “elite” sex parties.
In light of the Killing Kittens group—probably the UK’s largest sex party brand—recently inviting Heaven SX into its fold, VICE thought they’d catch up with Chris to find out how he makes his money.
Twenty Maori heads taken from New Zealand more than 200 years ago are finally on their way home after an emotional ceremony in Paris.
A French senator fought for five years to change the law so the Toi moko could be returned.
The saga has opened a worldwide debate about the holding of artifacts from other countries. Maori Heads Returned After French Senator’s Fight for 5 Years
Repatriation of scalps from a German museum to tribes in the United States is revealing the rift between the countries in the treatment of human remains as museum artifacts. Held by the Karl May Museum in Radebeul, the 17 scalps are part of a larger collection devoted to mythologizing a fictional vision of the American West.